588 views Yuda Electronic (HK) Technology Co.,Limited. 2018-05-17
The principle of fast charging is actually very simple
Nowadays, the phone battery capacity of mobile phones is generally more than 3,000 mAh. Using a 5V/1A charger, it takes at least three hours to fill a battery. With the increase of battery capacity, the old charger power can not meet the need for charging, so fast charging technology has emerged.
The major mobile phone manufacturers have introduced their own fast charging technology, the principle is to increase the charging current and voltage, to real high-power charging. In simple terms, the input power of the charging port = input voltage x input current. The general mobile phone charger will have a charging curve to achieve the highest charging efficiency by controlling different voltages and currents. In general, the most efficient way to start is constant current charging (faster charging), followed by constant voltage charging (the charging speed goes down because the voltage of the battery itself goes up), and finally the trickle charge.
Most mobile phones now use Qualcomm’s Quick Charge charging technology. From the initial 1.0 standard to the current 4.0 standard, the higher the standard, the higher the charging efficiency. QC 1.0 breaks through the USB-IF protocol for USB Battery Charge 1.2, which increases the voltage and current to 5V2A and reduces the charging time by 40%. The real meaning of fast charging starts from QC 2.0. Through the handshake protocol, the charger and the mobile phone recognize each other, and then increase the transmission voltage, up to 20V. Although the current does not change, the charging efficiency increases by nearly 75%.
QC 3.0 is based on 2.0, introduces the INOV algorithm, accurately controls the charging voltage, the input voltage reaches 200mV adaptive adjustment, the performance has increased by nearly 38% while reducing the loss, at this time by virtue of the voltage controllable , The current is increased to 3A. The current mainstream fast-charged mobile phones use the QC2.0 and QC3.0 standards. To QC 4.0 is a more sophisticated intelligent adjustment control voltage, accuracy of 20mV, charging current and voltage has become more flexible, there is a constant 3A or non-constant 4.7A-5.6A, the voltage does not need to reach 20V so high, Intelligent regulation between 5V and 9V, with nearly 20% increase in speed and nearly 30% increase in efficiency.
Fast charge technology, the reason for more sophisticated current and voltage control, the main reason is to be able to get a more extreme charging curve, in the early stage of charging, high-power charging allows users to obtain maximum power in the shortest time, the remaining uncharged The battery capacity is to be gradually reduced to complete the charge, to protect the battery and the circuit.
The principle of battery aging
Most of the batteries used on mobile phones are lithium-ion batteries. What we call battery aging refers to the aging of lithium-ion batteries during daily use. Why does aging occur? Let’s give everyone the science work how the lithium battery works: Lithium ions can pass through the electrolyte in the positive and negative poles, which will generate electricity for the device. The so-called battery capacity can be easily understood as the amount of lithium ions that run back and forth during charge and discharge.
The material that makes up the battery electrode often breaks down and decomposes, allowing certain metal ions (manganese ions) to float freely and run to the opposite electrode, trapping lithium ions. When the manganese ions (gray on the top) are stripped from the cathode (blue area) of the cell, they react with the electrolyte near the anode (gold region) of the cell and trap lithium ions (green yellow in the figure above). As time passes, more and more lithium ions cannot be put into normal operation, and the capacity of the battery is gradually reduced, resulting in a decrease in battery life.(Three Ways to Improve Mobile Phone Battery Life)
Why cell phone batteries age?
1, overcharge, over discharge
There are many causes of battery aging. The first is natural aging. Even if it is used normally, lithium ions will deviate from the anode, gradually aging, but the aging rate is slower. In daily use, overcharging and overdischarging the battery will accelerate the aging of the lithium battery. Current mobile phones usually have a rectifying and regulated design. When the charger is fully charged, the charger power supply will disconnect the charging circuit and directly use the power cable to supply power to the mobile phone. If you do not use the original phone charger, it is very likely that you will not cut off the power in time and continue to charge the fully charged battery.（Is it necessary to use the original phone charger for charging the mobile phone?） It will accelerate the shedding of lithium ions, damage the battery, and cause the battery to age. When the battery is depleted, free-moving ions will be trapped, as well as the capacity of the battery.
2, the temperature is too high / too low
In addition to overcharging and overdischarging, battery temperature is too high and too low, which can also affect battery life. The frequent discharge of the battery will generate heat, which will cause the battery temperature to be too high during actual use. Therefore, when we play a large game or run other power-consuming programs, we need to pay attention to heat dissipation and control program running time. In the same low temperature condition, the lithium ion activity is reduced, and the battery performance and charging performance are also greatly reduced. If charging is performed, the battery life will also be affected. Therefore, in a cold environment, mobile phones, notebook computers, drones, and other devices need to be warmed up to a certain temperature before they can work properly.
3, the current is too high
In addition, the charging current will also affect the battery life. When the battery is charging, the current is too high, the battery damage will be particularly serious, and even cause short circuit, explosion, burning and other conditions, the general manufacturers of original products will have The charging protection circuit controls the battery charging current too much.
Fast charging will accelerate battery aging? The answer is no.
As mentioned above, fast charging actually increases the charger power and allows the current and voltage to increase. Therefore, if no regulation is performed, the battery will be aged. However, in addition to the oldest QC1.0 standard, the new version of fast charging technology can achieve higher voltage fast charging mode through a handshake protocol. For some mobile phones that do not support fast charging technology, even if a fast charging charger is used, the charger will automatically reduce the charging efficiency and avoid accidents.
When we understand the principle of fast charging, fast charging only increases the input voltage during charging. Generally, the maximum battery charge current is controlled within 6A. QC 4.0 maximizes the voltage and current control, but it is also in the safe range. There is no damage to the battery.
In general, the current fast-charging technology of mobile phones will not accelerate the aging of the battery. On the contrary, the most fundamental reason for the accelerated aging of batteries is caused by our bad charging habits.
Have to know the bad habit of charging
Say the bad habit of charging. First, you must use the original phone charger and USB cable to avoid accident due to the charger’s quality. The problem of unstable charging current is often due to the quality of the equipment you use.
Frequent charging also tends to accelerate the consumption of battery life, and even leads to reduced battery activity and shortened battery life. Especially after the fast charging technology was added, although the charging speed was very high in the early stage, it did not draw up to 100% to pull the cable, resulting in multiple charging, increasing the number of battery cycles, which would reduce the battery life. This accelerates the aging of the battery. So even if you use fast charging, try to make the phone full and then power off.
In addition, the charging of the mobile phone under high and low temperature conditions of the battery is also greatly damaged. In a daily environment, charging while playing a game often causes the temperature of the mobile phone to rise rapidly. The high-temperature environment accelerates the chemical reaction inside the battery and accelerates the aging of the battery. Therefore, the battery is expected to be more durable and should not be used while charging. At the same time, in an extreme environment, it is best to let the phone return to normal temperature before charging.
Fast charging brings convenience to our lives and improves our quality of life. We should not resist it and get rid of bad habits in use.
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